Main Body

5 Lesson 3. 책상 위에 가족 사진이 있어요.

학습 목표 Goals

By the end of this lesson, you will be able to:

  • Talk about your room.
  • Ask and answer “where” questions.

들어가기 Setting Up

Lesson Focus

같이 얘기해 봐요! Share your thoughts!

In Preliminaries, we did an activity asking what items you have: 책 있어요? We will recycle this verb and talk about where things are. Talk with your classmates about how Korean and your native language may express the locations of items differently from English.

Read these dialogues especially paying attention to Seyoung’s responses. What verb does she use in each case? How might they be translated into English?

In this lesson, you will learn two verbs, 있어요 and 없어요, and use them to describe a room. You will also learn how to ask WHERE questions. Let the journey begin again!

단어 Ingredients

방과 물건 Rooms and Items

교실 침대 책장 책상 의자
room classroom bed bookcase desk chair
가족 사진 옷장 창문 스탠드 냉장고 화장실
family photos wardrobe, closet window lamp refrigerator bathroom

위치 Location Nouns

아래
front back side top below inside outside

 새 단어와 표현 New Vocabulary and Expressions

공책 기숙사 어디 여기 없다 (없어요)
notebook dormitory where here there is not
있다 (있어요) 그리고 그런데, 근데 -에 -하고
there is and (sentence connector) but (sentence connector) in, on, at (location particle) and (noun particle)
아주 좋아요.
very good.

단어 메모지 Vocabulary Notes

1. -하고: NOUN and NOUN

-하고 is a particle that means and. It connects two nouns:

책상하고 의자                          a desk and a chair

선생님하고 학생                       a teacher and a student

하고 화장실                          a room and a bathroom

-하고does not connect sentences. It is ungrammatical to say: 저는 학생이에요. 하고 3학년이에요.

 

2. 그리고 and 그런데: SENTENCE. And/But SENTENCE

그리고 and 그런데 are sentence connectors and usually follow a period or a comma.

방에 침대하고 옷장이 있어요. 그리고 책상하고 의자가 있어요.

그런데 화장실이 없어요.

There is a bed and a closet in the room. And, there is a desk and a chair.  But there is no bathroom.

** You may have heard different for English, but it is fine to start a sentence with this “and” in Korean! **

 

3. 아래

It’s tricky to find a direct translation for 아래 in English that would be a noun. In a location phrase, NOUN 아래(에), it can mean “at the bottom of” but more often means “below” or “under.”

책상 아래                                  under the desk (or more rarely, the underside of the desk)

 

4. -이/가 있어요/없어요 Have/Don’t have

있어요 and 없어요, the verbs of existence and possession most often appear with the subject particle 이 or 가.

가: 책이 있어요?                                         Do you have a book?

나: 네, 있어요/ 아니요. 없어요.                  Yes, I do/ No, I don’t.

발음 가이드 Pronunciation Guide

Pronunciation of CVCC

As noted in Preliminaries, usually only one consonant in a 받침 consonant sequence is pronounced, if the consonants are butting against another consonant in the next syllable or word. Let’s practice reading these words out loud:

없다 [업따]                   있다 [읻따]

단어 연습 Vocabulary Exercises

연습 1. 뭐가 있어요? 뭐가 없어요?

What items are there in your room? Work with a partner to see who can spot and name more things.

When you are done, tell your partner what you have in your room.

옷장           창문              책상                의자                책장                사진                시계

친구          스탠드          화장실             침대                선생님             냉장고             돈

연습 2. 뭐가 있어요?

Take note of what items there are in the following locations and report to the class.

(맛보기) 지갑 안에 – 지갑 안에 돈하고 가족 사진이 있어요.

1) 지갑 안에

2) 책상 위에

3) 내 옆에

4) 창문 밖에

5) 선생님 앞에

6) 책상 뒤에

연습 3. -하고, 그리고, and 그런데

Do you know the difference between -하고, 그리고, and 그런데? Fill the blanks in with the more appropriate choice!

1) 내 방이에요. 방에 책장이 있어요. __________ 침대도 있어요.

2) 선생님 방이에요. 방에 냉장고가 있어요. ___________ 화장실도 있어요.

3) 교실이에요. 책상_________ 의자가 있어요. ___________ 컴퓨터가 없어요.

4) 내 방이에요. 방에 책상이 있어요. ___________ 의자도 있어요. ___________ 책장이 없어요.

문법과 표현 Recipe

1. …-에 …-이/가 있어요/없어요 There is /There is no… in…

1111asdfasdfasdfasddf12d

제 친구 방이에요. 방에 책상하고 의자가 있어요. 그리고 침대가 있어요. 그런데 냉장고가 없어요.

-이/가 있어요/없어요       There is/There is no

You’ll remember from the Preliminaries that 있어요 and 없어요 express possession and lack of an item, respectively.

가: 시계 있어요?                           Do you have a/the watch?

나: 네, (시계) 있어요.                    Yes, I do.

있어요 means (something) … exists, so the thing that exists is the subject of this verb in Korean. When the possessor of the item is not explicitly said, the interpretation is contextual (whoever you are talking about, or by default, the speaker). The item that is possessed takes the subject particle ‑이 (after a noun ending in a consonant)/가 (after a noun ending in a vowel).

가:  가방 있어요?                      Does (someone) have a bag? (Literally, Is there a bag?)

나:  아니요, (가방이) 없어요        No, (they) don’t. (Literally, No, there isn’t (a bag).)

When there is no logical possessor, the meaning is simply something exists (or doesn’t), or there is (no):

Subject Subject Particle Verb (natural) English Translation
창문

window

있어요.

exists

There is a window/There are windows.
냉장고

refrigerator

없어요.

lacks/not-exist

There is no refrigerator/There are no refrigerators

 

In conversational Korean, the subject particle -이/가 is usually left out.

내일 시험이  있어요?                                    Is there a test tomorrow?

내일 숙제가  없어요.                                    There is no homework tomorrow.

* It might sound stilted or bookish to say the subject particle -이/가 when you speak Korean with your friends, but we recommend that you practice with it in the sentence to help you “get” Korean grammar thoroughly and be ready for more formal situations where people do use particle. Students quickly learn to “drop” particles once they have firmly grasp how they work, and it is not true the other way around. So, keep reminding yourself to put the subject particle after all subjects!

-에 있어요

The location particle -에 indicates the point at which the noun it attaches to is located. It can be expressed as in, on or at in English. In “There is/there are…” sentences, the location is normally said first, what is at that location (that is, the subject) next, and then finally the verb:

Location Noun Location Particle Subject Noun Subject Particle Verb (natural) English Translation

room

in/on/at

창문

window

있어요.

exists

There is a window in the room.

room

in/on/at

냉장고

refrigerator

없어요.

lacks/not-exist

There is no refrigerator in the room.

연습 1. -에, -이/가

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Photo Credit: Pixabay

Describe what items are in the room in the picture by filling in the blanks with appropriate particles. Remember to say the location particle first.

(맛보기)            방에 책상이 있어요.     There is a desk…

1) 방 ______ 침대_____ 있어요.

2) 방 ______ 사진_____ 없어요.

3) 의자 ______ 쿠션______ 있어요. *쿠션: cushion

Now that you have looked at the picture a while, you are aware of the things in the room and their whereabouts. Say where you find the following items.

4) 쿠션______ 의자 ______ 있어요.   The cushion is …

5) 컴퓨터______ 책상 ______ 있어요. The computer is …

연습 2. 뭐가 있어요? 없어요?

Take turns with your classmate saying whether the items in the following chart are found in the given place. Make two sentences and connect them using 그리고 or 그런데.

(맛보기)            한국어 교실 –>  한국어 교실에 창문이 있어요. 그런데 책장이 없어요.

한국어 교실 일본어 교실 선생님의 방 후안의 방 내 방
창문 O, 책장 X 컴퓨터 O, 화장실 O 돈 O, 친구 사진 X 옷장 X, 가족 사진 X _______ O, _______ X

1) 일본어 교실                    2) 선생님의 방                 3) 후안의 방                    4) 내 방

2. 어디에 있어요? Where is…?

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어디 Where

어디 is a WH-question word that is used to ask for a location. As in the case of the question word 뭐, 어디 simply replaces the location phrase. The thing you are asking about is said first:

카이: 제 한국어 책이 에 있어요?                   Where is my Korean book?

얀: (카이 씨의 한국어 책은) 제 에 있어요.        It (your Korean book) is in my room.

The particle -에 must be used after regular nouns, but it can be left out after location adverbs like 어디 where, 여기 here, 거기 there next to you, and 저기 way over there:

카이: 제 한국어 책이 어디에 있어요?                   Where is my Korean book?

얀: 저기에 있어요.                       It’s over there.

앞에, 옆에, 뒤에… In Front of, Next to, Behind…

-에 can do the work of expressing a general idea of location, but to talk about more specific locations such as in front of or next to, you need to use position words like 안 inside, 밖 outside, 위 top and 아래 area below. These are grammatically nouns in Korean. By coming after the reference point noun, they are in a sense “possessed” by it. When you add the location particle, -에, it becomes a location phrase:

침대(의) 옆   the bed’s side         침대(의) 옆     at the bed’s side = next to the bed

의자(의) 뒤   the chair’s back     의자(의) 뒤     at the chair’s back = behind the chair

So, to recap, the order of things in a sentence is: the reference point first, and then the position word (side, top, front, etc.)+에, followed by the subject, and then by the verb.

Reference Point Location Word Location Particle Subject Noun Subject Particle Verb Translation
책상

desk

back

at

의자

chair

있어요

there is

There is a chair behind the desk.
지갑

wallet

inside

at

money

없어요

there is no

There is no money in the wallet.

Can you guess what’s being talked about below and how the first sentence is different from the second in each case?

school desk with book and backpack 책상 옆에 ________ 이/가 있어요.

There is … next to the desk.

vs. _________ 이/가 책상 옆에 있어요.

The … is next to the desk.

책상 뒤에 ________ 이/가 있어요.

There is … behind the desk

vs. _________ 이/가 책상 뒤에 있어요.

The … is behind the desk

Position words are relative in nature, and they can be culture- or language-dependent. Do you agree that the 의자 is behind the desk?

Use of position words is also sensitive to idioms or fixed expressions. If you just got in bed, you just 침대에 (not 침대 안에) 누웠어요, but if you are sitting on the bed, you are 침대에 or 침대 위에 앉아 있어요 in Korean.

Finally, 안 inside is for things that you can usually open and see into. If not, you need to use another word, 속 (deep) inside:

물속 in(side) the water      숲속 in(side) a forest     사람 속 a person’s deep feelings/thoughts

연습 1. 알리사의 방

This is Alyssa’s room. Can you say the position of each item with respect to the given reference point? Fill in the blanks with the location word to complete each sentence.

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Photo Credit: Pixabay

Start your description by noting what items there are in her room.

1) 책상 _______에 의자가 있어요.

2) 책상 _______에 스탠드가 있어요.

3) 책장_______에 책이 있어요.

Having scanned the room, let’s say you now have a good idea about what’s in it. Say the location of the items as if answering a question Where is…?

4) 스탠드가 책상 _______에 있어요.

5) 창문이 책 상_______에 있어요.

6) 공책이 책상 _______에 있어요.            *공책: notebook

7) 책상이 책장 _______에 있어요.

연습 2. 방의 어디에 있어요? Where in the room?

This is 세영’s room. Taking turns with your partner, ask and answer where each item is in the room.

Picture Credit: Creazilla

(맛보기)     창문 -> 가: 창문이 어디에 있어요?               나: 침대 뒤에 있어요.

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1) 책장                              4) 의자

2) 시계                              5) 스탠드

3) 책                                  6) 침대

연습 3. 교실의 어디에 있어요? Where in the classroom?

Ask your partner where things are in the classroom. Answer your partner’s questions.

(맛보기시계 -> 가: 시계가 어디에 있어요?         나: 칠판1 위에 있어요

1칠판: blackboard

3. -은/는 (contrast) and -도 (also)

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도 also (Parallel)

As we learned in Lesson 2, -도 means too or also and comes after the new or added noun. 도 is frequently used after the conjunction 그리고.

방에 시계가 있어요. 그리고 가족 사진 있어요.

There is a clock in the room. There is also a family photo.  (A family photo also exists.)

-은/는 Contrast

You already know -은/는 as a topic particle. It can also mark contrast to a preceding referent as shown in Nicole’s post above, 화장실은 없어요.  More examples:

전화 옆에 컴퓨터가 있어요.  그런데 프린터는 없어요.

There is a computer next to the phone. But as for a printer, there is none. (i.e., There is no printer, however.)

We will learn more about this usage of -은/는 later in this book!

연습 1. -은/는 or -도?

Fill in the blanks with appropriate particles, -은/는 or -도.

1) 저는 미국 사람이에요. 그리고 제 친구________ 미국 사람이에요.

2) 저는 지갑이 있어요. 그런데 돈_______ 없어요.

3) 책상 위에 책이 있어요. 그리고 컴퓨터________ 있어요.

4) 침대 옆에 옷장이 있어요. 그런데 책장________ 없어요.

5) 방에 냉장고가 없어요. 그리고 화장실________ 없어요.

6) 방에 창문이 있어요. 그런데 화장실________ 없어요.

연습 2. What else you got in there?

Work with at least three classmates and find out what everyone has in their bag or pocket (주머니). Report your findings to the rest of the class.  Include -이/가-은/는, -도, 그리고 and -그런데 in your report!

해 봐요! Let’s Cook!

Interpretive Task 1: 듣기 Listening

Celina has just moved into a new dorm room, and Wei is asking her about it. Listen and find the information to answer the questions in Korean.

1) List three things that are in Celina’s room (other than the desk).

2) Name one thing that is not in Celina’s room.

3) Where is the desk in her room?

4) What does Wei think about Celina’s room?

Interpretive Task 2: 듣기 Listening

Nicole is describing her dorm room which she just moved into to a language partner who is a little older than her. Listen to her description and draw a picture of her room.

Interpretive Task 3: 읽기 Reading

Celina has posted a picture of her new room on a social media. Read her post to see if she has learned the lesson on location words well!

여기는 내 방이에요. 내 방은 아주 좋아요! 내 방에 침대하고 책상이 있어요.

그리고 의자도 있어요. 의자는 책상의 앞에 있어요. 그리고 책상 옆에도 있어요.

책상 위에 한국어 책하고 가방이 있어요. 가방 안에 컴퓨터 하고 책이 있어요.

그리고 지갑도 있어요. 책상 뒤에 창문이 있어요. 창문 옆에 냉장고가 있어요.

그런데 내 방에 화장실은 없어요.

Having read Celina’s post, can you answer the following questions?

1) What is next to Nicole’s desk?

2) Where is the chair?

3) What is in the bag?

4) What is not there in the room?      

 Interpersonal Task 4. 말하기 Speaking

내 방 My Room

Draw a picture of your belongings on a piece of paper, carefully positioning the items with respect to each other.  Hide the picture from your classmate, who will ask a series of questions about the room. Describe it to them so they can draw a picture. Compare your drawing with your partner’s when they are done. See how they are different. Have your partner draw a picture of their belongings, too, and repeat the game. Don’t forget to use -이/가, -은/는, and -도 when necessary!

한국 문화 Korean Flavors

Language Point

Korean Nouns: Definiteness and Word Order

Determiners such as a and the are not part of Korean grammar, and the definiteness distinction (e.g. a book vs. the book) is usually of no concern to Korean speakers. For similar concepts, the Korean language uses number words (e.g. one, five, fifty-seven books) and demonstratives (e.g. this book vs. that book).

Korean can also make a noun definite (signal it as “the one we are talking about” or “the specific one I have in mind”) by placing it before the location in 있어요/없어요 sentences:

방에          침대       있어요.             There is a bed in the room/There are beds in the room.

침대       방에          있어요.             The bed is in the room.

방에          냉장고    없어요.            There is no (= not a) fridge in the room.

냉장고    방에          없어요.            The fridge is not in the room.

Since “I” am always definite (well, we know “I” exist!), it is usually first in the sentence, and since it is already a known entity, it is typically marked with a topic particle. The same rule applies to other definite things:

         제 방에      있어요.                I am in my room.

제 친구 학교에         있어요.             My friend is at school.

         밖에          있어요.                 The car is outside.

한국의 집과 방 Korean Houses and Rooms

A traditional Korean house is called 한옥. People used to sleep on the floor after putting a mat (요) down and covering themselves with a cotton-filled comforter (이불). They used a small pillow (베개) filled with grains, seeds, or cotton. The stone floor (온돌) would be kept warm in the winter by heat recycled from the kitchen (and circulated under the floor boards). Even nowadays in apartment buildings, the floors are still heated. Visit 북촌 한옥 마을 (Village) and 전주 한옥 마을 when you go to Korea and find out about 온돌!

북촌 한옥 마을

전주 한옥 마을

 

Photo Credit: Pixabay

할 수 있어요! I got this!

1rCheck to see if you can do the following.

  • I can talk about my room.
  • I can ask and answer “where” questions.
Listening Script 1

웨이:    셀리나 씨, 기숙사 방에 뭐가 있어요?

셀리나: 침대하고 옷장이 있어요. 그리고 침대 옆에 책장도 있어요.

웨이:    그럼 책상도 있어요?

셀리나: 네, 창문 앞에 있어요.

웨이:    냉장고도 있어요?

셀리나: 네,  있어요.

웨이:    와, 셀리나 씨 방이 좋아요!  화장실도 있어요?

셀리나: 아니요. 화장실은 없어요.

Listening Script 2

여기는 내 방이에요. 방에 침대가 있어요. 침대 옆에 테이블이 있어요.

테이블 위에 가족 사진이 있어요. 그리고 스탠드도 있어요. 내 방에 창문도 있어요.

창문 아래에 책상이 있어요. 책상 앞에 의자가 있어요. 의자 옆에 내 가방하고 책도 있어요.

그런데 책장하고 냉장고는 없어요. 내 방은 좋아요!

 

License

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You Speak Korean! Book 1 by Soohee Kim, Emily Curtis, Haewon Cho, Angela Lee-Smith, and Mijeong Kim is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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