- Ask politely where people are heading to.
- Ask and answer “who” questions.
- Deny or contradict a statement.
- INGREDIENTS – 단어 Vocabulary
- 장소와 건물 Places and Buildings
- RECIPE – 문법과 표현 Grammar
- Goes to… -에 가요 in Casual-Polite Present Tense Conjugation
- Asking and answering ‘who’ with 누구 and 누가
- Negation 안
- LET’S COOK – 해봐요! Classroom Tasks
- KOREAN FLAVORS – 한국 언어와 문화 Korean Language and Culture
- Language Point
- 인사말 Exchange Pleasantries
- NOW YOU TRY! – 스스로 해봐요! Async. Practices and Tasks
How do you greet your friends when you run into them on the street? Talk with your classmates about what you say in your native language.
Read these two dialogues with your friend. What did the person on the right suggest and what would probably happen next?
In this lesson, you will learn how talk about who is going where and how to make negative sentences.
|house, home||park||library||school||company / workplace|
|convenience store||supermarket||eatery, cafeteria||coffee shop||singing room|
|we, our (humble/plain)||whosubject||Isubject(plain)||Isubject(humble)||to go|
|to study||to live||to come||everyday||now|
|혼자(서)||-하고 같이||-에||아, 그래요?||미안합니다/미안해요.|
|alone||together with||to||Oh, is that right?||I am sorry.|
|-은/는요?||우리 같이 ~||좀 바빠요||어, 아|
|How/what about…?||Let’s … together!||a little busy||oh!|
1.First-person pronouns (plural) 우리/저희
Do you remember the first-person pronouns 나 (plain) and 저 (humble)? Their plural forms are 우리 and 저희, respectively.
후안 씨, 우리는 집에 있어요. Juan, we are at home.
선생님, 저희는 교실에 있어요. Teacher, we are in the classroom.
Do you also recall the possessive 내 (나 + 의) my-plain and 제 (저 +의) my-humble? Their plural forms are 우리의 and 저희의, but they are normally said without the possessive marker -의:
우리 나라 Our country
저희 집 Our house
You can use 나, 내 and 우리 with the person you are talking to if they are equals (e.g. same-age friends or colleagues) or younger than you. With those who are older than you, it’s safer to be polite and use 저, 제 and 저희!
NOTE: Koreans say our to talk about family members and household belongings. It sounds very odd to use the singular, so that even unmarried ‘singles’ may say our to refer to their own house.
제 어머니 → 저희 어머니 [저이 어머니] my/our mother
내 집 → 우리 집 [우리 집] my/our house
2. -하고 (같이) (together) with
When the marker -하고 comes after a person, its meaning can be (together or along) with (that person). In that case, the word 같이 together is often used redundantly to emphasize the companionship. Note! -하고 is required whether the adverb 같이 is used or not.
친구하고 (같이) 학교에 가요. I go to school (together) with a friend.
친구 같이 학교에 가요. I go to school together a friend.
And, don’t forget the pronunciation and the spelling of the word 같이 [가치]!
3. -은/는요? how about…? what about…?
The topic marker can be used as a shorthand way of bringing up a contrast, soliciting more under the same topic, or drawing attention to known yet unmentioned items:
웨이: 후안 씨, 어디 가요? Juan, where are you going?
후안: 식당에 가요. 웨이 씨는요? I am going to the restaurant. How about you, Wei?
웨이: 저는 도서관에 가요. I am going to the library.
Some words have the most peculiar pronunciation. We will not explain why until it becomes relevant to you, but learn the words with odd pronunciation each time you encounter them!
같이 [가치] together
해돋이 [해도지] sunrise
This rule may not seem so strange after all. Think of how “Got you” is pronounced in fast speech, for example,
Say the names of places that are typically associated with what you see. See how many you can come up with!
(맛보기) 책: 도서관, 서점
Where are all these people going today? Ask your partner, who knows everything. (And take turns. 😊)
(맛보기) 가: 세영이 오늘 어디에 가요? 나: 편의점에 가요.
6) 반 친구
Complete the following text message with 우리 or 저희 appropriately.
1) 선생님: 아키 씨하고 후안 씨, 어디에 있어요?
아키: 선생님, ________는 지금 도서관에 있어요.
2) 지우: 하루토 씨하고 후안 씨, 어디에 있어요?
아키: 지우 씨, ________는 지금 도서관에 있어요.
A. The ‘point’ marker -에 with the verb 가요
You learned -에 as a location marker in, at, on, and you have been practicing sentences like this:
친구가 도서관에 있어요. My friend is at the library.
The core meaning of -에 is more like a point on a map or on a clock (as you will see in up-coming lessons). So, when it is used with a verb like 가요 go or 와요 come, that “point” becomes a destination:
저는 내일 슈퍼에 가요. I am going to the supermarket tomorrow.
내일 집에 반 친구들이 와요. My/some classmates are coming to (my) house tomorrow.
B. Casual polite-present tense
You know the subject can be left out, if it is I, you, it, or the same as the one in the previous sentence — that is, if the subject can be understood from the context.
Although Korean verbs do not conjugate like English (e.g. I go, she goes), they do change forms to give information about whether the action being talked about has been completed (e.g. it rained vs. it will rain), how polite the speaker is being, or even about the speaker’s attitude. If you hear -ㅂ니다/습니다 at the end of sentences, the person is speaking in the formal speech style, for example.
If you see a verb that ends in -어/아요, it is “conjugated” for what is called the casual-polite present tense. The suffix -요 shows that the speaker is being polite to the listener, and the -어/아 part shows that it is in the present tense. You may hear verbs without -요, but it would be an unmentionable social transgression to speak this way with those who are older than you.
Once you get to know your classmates and become good friends (and if they are very close in age, you may start dropping -요 when you speak to each other. No using -씨 after names then. To practice speaking properly, your teacher may insist on using -요. It’s always safer to be polite.
Although it is in the “present” tense, the verb can have other interpretations than “present,” depending on the context (and accompanying adverbs). Check out how 가(요) can be understood in many different ways:
|General fact or habitual action (usually, always)||매일 공원에 가요.||I go to the park every day.|
|Progressive action (now)||지금 공원에 가요.||I am going to the park now.|
|Definite plan||내일 공원에 가요.||I am going to the park tomorrow.|
|Proposal Let’s||우리, 공원에 가요!||Let’s go to the park!|
|Question||공원에 가요?||Do you/will you/are you going to the park?|
As you have seen, the -어/아(요) ending is quite versatile, thus useful. Until you learn other speech endings, it can cover the most ground!
With your partner, take turns talking about where your friends are going to today.
(맛보기) 가: 지우가 오늘 어디에 가요? 나: 편의점에 가요.
|박지우||후안 로페즈||요시다 하루토||알리사 존슨||첸 웨이||니콜 파커|
Ask at least three classmates where they are going today. Then report the results of your survey to the class.
(맛보기) 가: (반친구 이름) 씨, 오늘 어디 가요?
1111111111111나: 도서관에 가요. 같이 가요!
1111111111111가: 네, 좋아요!/ 미안해요. 오늘 좀 바빠요.
|친구 이름||어디||친구 이름||어디|
|친구 이름||어디||친구 이름||어디|
누구 was briefly introduced in Lesson 2 when we ask “whose” questions. 누구 means who (or whom), but when used as the subject, the shape changes to 누가 (Who is the subject of the sentence when it is a doer of something). When is it not the subject of the sentence, use 누구 + other markers:
|누가 (from 누구가)||who-subject||가: 오늘 누가 영화관에 가요?
나: 웨이가 가요.
|Who is going to the movie theater today? Wei is.|
|who-subject 있어요||가: 내일 집에 누가 있어요? 12
나: 알리사가 있어요.
|Who will be (staying) at home tomorrow? Alissa will.|
|누구||who-other markers||가: 누구하고가요?
나: 나하고 같이 가요.
|Who is he going with? He is going with me.|
|Who is it? It’s me.|
In every-day speech, you’ll hear people leaving out the subject marker (집에 누구 있어요? Who is home?/Is anyone home?).
Questions with 누가 put focus on and demand clarification of which specific one. Whenever asked with 누가, answer with the subject marker -이/가 (내가 or 제가 if I is the answer).
후안: 지금 내 방에 누가 있어요? Who is in my room now?
니콜: 내가 있어요. I am.
By varying the word order, you can have a different effect, putting extra focus on who:
알리사: 커피숍에 누구하고 가요? Who are you going to the coffee shop with?
웨이: 친구하고 가요. I am going with a friend.
누구하고 커피숍에 가요? Who is it that you are you going to the coffee shop with?
반친구하고 가요. (I am going) with a classmate.
NOTE: When 나 and 저 are used as the subject in a sentence and come with the subject marker 가, they change their shapes to 내 and 제. This can be confusing, as the possessive forms are also 내 and 제. Luckily, the subject marker is never omitted, in spoken or written Korean when the base form is changed. So when you see 내 or 제, that is the possessive form, and when you see 내가 or 제가, that is a pronoun being used as the subject.
가: 오늘 학교에 누가 가요? Who is going to (the) school today?
나: 제가 가요. I am (going).
It will be very helpful if you learn this summary chart by heart. (Written forms are left out.)
Fill in the blanks with 누가 or 누구.
(맛보기) 가: _________ 편의점에 가요? 나:지우가 편의점에 가요.
|지우||후안, 하루토||하루토||알리사, 피터||웨이||니콜|
1) 가: _______ 학교에 가요? 나: 알리사하고 웨이가 학교에 가요.
2) 가: _______ 화장실에 가요? 나: 하루토가 화장실에 가요.
3) 가: 하루토가 _______하고 커피숍에 가요? 나: 후안하고 가요.
4) 가: _______ 노래방에 가요? 나: 니콜이 가요.
5) CHALLENGE! 가: _______도 노래방에 가요? 나: 피터도 노래방에 가요.
Who is going there? Ask and answer the question according to the pictures. Don’t forget to use the subject particle -이 or -가 in your answer!
(맛보기) 가: 누가 편의점에 가요? 나: 후안이 편의점에 가요.
|지우||후안 로페즈||요시다 하루토||알리사 존슨||첸 웨이||니콜 파커|
1) 누가 도서관에 가요?
2) 누가 슈퍼에 가요?
3) 누가 노래방에 가요?
4) 누가 공원에 가요?
5) 누가 식당에 가요?
Walk around the classroom and find out with whom your classmates go to the following places.
(맛보기) 가: 누구하고 학교에 가요? 나: 혼자 가요.
Possible choices: 혼자, 선생님, 친구, 엄마1, 아빠2, or any specific person, etc.
1엄마: mom 2아 : dad
In Lessons 2 and 3, you learned how to negate 이에요 and 있어요 with special negative verbs. Can you negate the following sentences?
저는 선생님이 __________________. 학생이에요.
도서관에 친구가 __________________. 커피숍에 있어요.
|저는 선생님이 아니에요. 학생이에요.|
|도서관에 친구가 없어요. 커피숍에 있어요.|
For other verbs, 안 is added directly before the verb to make a negative statement:
알리사는 오늘 회사에 가요. Alyssa is going to work today.
알리사는 내일 회사에 안 가요. Alyssa is not going to work tomorrow.
엘라는 지금 한국에 살아요. Ella lives in Korea now.
엘라는 지금 한국에 안 살아요. Ella doesn’t live in Korea now.
Your classmate (partner) is making erroneous statements about what people do and what they are. Correct them with the right information. Take turns being the one who is mistaken.
(맛보기) 가: 후안은 미국 사람이에요.
111111111. 나: 아니요, 미국 사람이 아니에요. (멕시코 사람이에요.)
1) 웨이는 캐나다 사람이에요.
2) 알리사는 지금 회사에 있어요.
3) 니콜은 오늘 한국 슈퍼마켓에 가요.
4) 후안은 매일 노래방에 가요.
5) 지우는 한국에 살아요.
6) 수지는 내일 학교에 와요.
Ella is texting with Nicole. Find out what they are texting about.
*근데 (=그런데): by the way *농담: a joke
Read the text messages above and answer True or False.
1) Nicole is at the Korean restaurant now. True False
2) Nicole will go to the restaurant with her friends. True False
3) The restaurant is in front of a supermarket. True False
4) Ella will join Nicole at the restaurant. True False
Nicole bumps into Alissa on the street. Listen to their conversation and answer the following questions in Korean.
1) Where was Alissa headed?
2) Where was Nicole headed?
3) Who is Nicole meeting there?
4) What will happen next?
반친구들을 인터뷰해 보세요. Interview your classmates.
Ask at least two classmates about where they are going after class today and tomorrow. Which place seems to be the most popular? Share the results of your interviews with the class.
We have been talking exclusively about “me” and “I,” be it humble or plain, singular or plural. What about “you” in Korean? In English, you can directly call the person when you want their attention with ‘hey you,’ or if you want to be more polite, adopt a more round-about way with ‘excuse me.’ There are quite a few second-person pronouns (the “you” variety) in Korean, but each is used in a very limited context.
You can use 너 (you) only if the following two conditions are met: 1) the person is the same age as you or younger, or 2) the person is an adult, and you two are very close. In short, it is not a form of respect or politeness at all and NEVER should be used with adults who are older than you or whom you don’t know, as it is one of the biggest social blunders you can commit in the Korean language, amounting to a slap in the face!
How do we say you in Korean without using a pronoun? There are a few ways:
- Use FIRST NAME + 씨, if the person you are speaking to is an adult. (You can use 너 if they are a child.)
- Use family relationship terms like 언니/누나 older sister or 오빠/형 older brother, 이모 auntie for younger ladies, 아주머니 auntie for older ladies, and 아저씨 uncle even for strangers.
- Use workplace or organization-based titles like 선생님 teacher, 교장선생님 principal, 원장선생님 head of an institute, 부장님 section chief, 팀장님 Ms./Mr. team leader, or 선배님 someone with more years and experience
The uses of titles to mean “you” and to mean a third party are distinguished by a comma in written Korean. In spoken Korean? By context. You will learn necessary honorifics and verbal endings as you go.
웨이 씨 어디 가요? Where is Wei going?
웨이 씨, 어디 가요? Where are you going, Wei?/ Wei, are you going somewhere?
If you are working with grown-up classmates and meeting college-age friends, you can start with FIRST NAME + 씨. Don’t forget to use 선생님, always, for your teacher, and never use 씨 for yourself!
B. It’s all in the little ones!
If you look at the words carefully, there are recognizable bits of words that recur with a similar meaning. Learn them to increase your vocabulary power exponentially:
- -실 a single room 지하실 basement, 온실 greenhouse
- -원 open garden 공원 park, 동물원 zoo, 유치원 kindergarten
- -관 a large hall 미술관 art museum, 역사박물관 history museum
- -방 room, place 찜질방 dry sauna house, 빨래방 coin laundry
- -점 a store 상점 store, 음식점 restaurant
Although not introduced in this lesson, there are a few more very useful bits of word meaning you might want to pick up:
- -장 field, area 시장 market, 주차장 parking lot, 수영장 swimming pool, 스키장 ski slope
- -가 street, district 대학가 college town, 상가 shopping center/district
- -청 government agency 시청 city hall, 국세청national tax service agency,
- -국 bureau, office 우체국 post office, 전화국 telephone company
- -원 institute 대학원 graduate school, 병원 hospital, 학원 private tutoring institute
These word-fragments cannot stand alone as independent words in a sentence:
실이 있어요. There is a room.
Instead, they must combine with other words or word-fragments to form a full noun:
교실 classroom (literally, “teaching room”)
Asking “어디 가요?” is not usually considered intrusive in Korean. It is a friendly gesture, showing that one cares. Also, if a pause precedes the word 가요, the question simply means “Hello.” (Literally, ‘going somewhere?’) In that case, you can respond with “네, 어디 가요.” (Yes, I am going somewhere.) Find out how to say “어디 가요?” in two different ways!
1rCheck to see if you can do the following.
- I can ask politely where people are heading to.
- I can ask and answer “who” questions.
- I can deny or contradict a statement.
니콜: 어, 알리사 씨!
알리사: 아, 니콜 씨, 안녕하세요?
니콜: 네, 안녕하세요? 지금 어디 가요?
알리사: 내일 시험이 있어요. 그래서 도서관에 가요. 니콜 씨는 어디 가요?
니콜: 저는 만나 식당에 가요.
알리사: 만나 식당이요? 중국 식당이에요?
니콜: 아니요, 한국 식당이에요. 음식이 맛있어요!
알리사: 아, 그래요? 혼자 가요?
니콜: 아니요, 웨이 씨하고 지우 씨하고 가요. 알리사 씨도 같이 가요!
알리사: 네, 좋아요!